This article explains and reviews the theoretical and normative contexts of transitional justice.
Empirical studies and specific settings, particularly in the Arab region, need to be rooted much more in
transitional justice theory. This would allow similarities and differences in models and practices to be debated
and understood. If there were a rigorous theoretical application to such studies, especially if they were
comparative in nature, much more could be learnt from those experiences. The article therefore aims to
ensure that the models of transitional justice being suggested, and at times being implemented, in various
places around the world, including Arab countries, integrate the theory and practice of transitional justice.
Data and statistics need to be used and evaluated and there needs to be greater use of methodological
processes including empirical studies. At present, this is not always the case. Often, models are designed
or implemented without due regard to transitional justice theory. Similarly, when models are presented or
critiqued by practitioners, little regard is given to transitional justice theory, or the context within which those
models operated. Little context is provided and little is done to ensure that the material from one context
can be understood and applied in other places. Therefore, it is difficult to see what lessons can be learnt
for other places even where the context or circumstances are very similar.